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Quarterly Journal of Academy of Court nonprofit research and economic and statistical Aladariaoualemhacbah and Banking and Finance. Issued the first number of the magazine in 1981. Is published four issues per year 17 the number was issued from the period 2004-2012
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Journal Information

Publisher: Basrah University

Email:  college_Eco_Adm@yahoo.com

Editor-in-chief: Professor Dr. Prof.Dr. Nabil J. Abdul-Ridha

ISSN: 1814-9669

Market orientation is variable and mediator in the relationship between Holistic marketing and competitive advantage

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 48, Pages 1-30

This study is intended to determine the role of the holistic marketing with its factors, (integrate marketing, internal marketing, marketing in relation and performance marketing) which is an independent variable in achieving the competitive advantage with its dimensions (cost, quality, flexibility, delivery and technology) which depends on the market orientation with its dimensions (customer orientation, competitive orientation and coordination of tasks). It is worth relying on appropriate marketing strategies that consider the intensity of the current and potential competition in banking sector. This is supported by the encouragement of the government of establishing private and international banks. The study also aims to satisfy the needs and tastes of customers by offering distinct competitive characteristic of the bank. Thus, the study matter has been embodied in a question as to does holistic marketing in its dimensions have a role in achieving the competitive advantage its dimensions with the existence of market orientation as a mean factor? To examine the credibility of those propositions, data related to the study sample variables has been gathered according to a questionnaire, personal interviews. Field observation on banks. The study sample was conducted on a group of bank managers and bankers, and bosses. The study sample was given to (163) individuals in (16) bank in order to achieve measurement tool's data precision, finding analysis credibility. In addition the study reached findings that rejected the basic and secondary propositions and chose the alternative proposition for the existent propositions. It brought in some practical and theoretical inferences among which is the conclusion- that holistic marketing with its factors contribute to support the ability of banks to challenge the dramatic changes and thereafter stabilizing their competitive situation through achievement of the competitive advantage. There is also the existence of strong influential relationships of each of the inclusive marketing factors and the competitive advantage of the market orientation.

Tax on added value and possibility of its application in Iraq

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 48, Pages 31-53

The Value Add Tax has many qualifies excels out the other taxes، and the financing role considers the main role which the VAT playing as well as other roles like controling of consumption ،expenditure and enhancing growth rates. In addition VAT became the main feature of the modern taxes systems weather in developed or developing countries. The paper dealt the main reasons behind depending VAT in Iraq and the main obstacles will be faced the tax administration if depend it.At last the paper suggested a simplified model to apply VAT on Iraqi tax system taking into account the privacy of tax administration and the environment of Iraq economy in general.

Evaluation of Awkun laws in American Economy (1995 – 2014)

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 48, Pages 54-76

The American economist Arthur Malvin was the first to discover the empirical relationship between unemployment and economic growth in 1962, where he explained that the change in the unemployment rate is linked to the inverse relationship with the change in the real output volume of any economy. This relationship was later known in the macroeconomic models Under the name of the law of Oken.
The second study attempted to estimate the impact of the subprime mortgage crisis experienced by the US economy in 2008 on the relationship between economic growth and unemployment for the period 1995-2014 by conducting a test Structural changes or the stability test of the parameter in the Oken Law. The results indicated that the Oken Act in the United States of America was in force. Okin was a negative sign. The results also showed a structural change resulting from the subprime crisis. The regression results of the relationship between economic growth and unemployment P The study results are considered questionable authenticity (dubious value) unless the test is performed so that the stability of the time series results are acceptable statistically and can be used to predict economic policy on growth and unemployment in the United States.

The use of some nonparametric methods to model of nonparametric panel data in case there is a problem of heterogeneity to estimate of the general budget for the Arab States for the period(2002-2014)

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 48, Pages 77-99

In this research has addressed to the study of some estimators nonparametric to model random effects nonparametric double data (Nonparametric Panel Data Models With Random Effects) in case of a problem of heterogeneity, as there is a serious problem is in the selection of display primaries parameter, and therefore we need to find a A quick way to determine the accurate boot by eating standard intersection of legitimacy to the parameter (legitimate transit), and was eating both destined hard topical nonparametric using expansion Taylor (Local Constant Nonparametric Estimator by a Taylor expansion) (LCNE), and the estimated linear topical nonparametric using expansion Taylor ( Local Linear Nonparametric Estimator by a Taylor expansion) (LLNE), and an estimated two-stage estimation method (Nonparametric Two - Step Estimation Method in panel data) (Two - Step), by applying these methods on realistic data indicate the general budget for the Arab States for the period (2014-2002) , and the results proved destined least squares linear positional weighted to model and superiority over the estimated others preference by receiving a lower value to standards (RAMSE), (AMAPE) .
Keyword Panel data: LCNE ,LLNE , Two-step , Bandwidth , RAMSE , AMAPE Random effects.

The comparison between classical approach and Bayesian approach to estimate the simultaneous equations in case the dependent variable is binary with application

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 48, Pages 100-131

The research represents an attempt to estimate the simultaneous equations system in case the endogenous variable is classified binary by Using Bayesian approach and applied this method on relation between blood Pressure and psychological stress .the researcher used classical method as prior information to order to use Bayesian approach and compare between the classical method and Bayesian method and also compare among Bayesian methods by using criterion of (mse),and he deduced that the proposal method is the best from another methods.

Determining the variables affecting the scientific level of the university student at the end of academic year using the ordinal logistic regression

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 48, Pages 132-149

The main objective of this research is to study the variables affecting the end year results of the student of Department of Statistics, Facility of Administration and Economics, University of Basra. The researcher uses the questionnaire approach which consist of 43 questions which distributed in five areas. The research sample included 215 student who are enrolled in the bachelor’s degree for the academic year 2017-2018. After analyzing the questionnaire, the research reached to the number of conclusions. The most important variables that have significant impact as below:
- Sex variable
- Student social status
- Student desire to study in the department
- The economic level of the student's family
- Student feeling of depression during exams
- Dependence on different sources of learning to understand the lecture
- Feel embarrassed when asking others to help clarify the lecture or solve a question.

An Empirical Study on Interest Rate towards InternationalMarkets

Assist. Prof .Dr. Yousif ALI ABED AL-ASADI

Economic Sciences, Volume 12, Issue 48, Pages 150-158

Interest rate is one of the fiscal factor that is used to regulate the monetary policy of a country. The main objective of the study is to know about the interest rate prevailing with countries and to analyze about impact of interest rate towards international currency pairs. For this purpose the currencies of five countries were taken and they were compared with the interest rate to know about the impact. The conclusion that the interest rate changes has an impact towards the market in mid and long term basis with all the currencies taken for the study.
Keywords: Interest rate, fiscal and monetary policy

The Effect of The Working Capital Management on Performance Measurements in Iraq's Manufacturing Sector

Economic Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 44, Pages 99-124

The aim of this Study to examine and Analysis the effect of the Working Capital Management on the Profitability and Liquidity and Risk for thirteen of Iraqi's Manufacturing Companies are listed in Iraq Stock Exchange for the period from 2005 to 2013 , the study used the Cash Conversion Cycle as independent Variable and used the ROA and ROE and EPS to measure the profitability , and used the Liquidity ratio and the Quick Ratio to measure the Liquidity , and finally used the Standard Deviation to measure the Risk as depends Variables, the study's result shows :
1- There is a negative significant relationship between the CCC and the ROA and EPS .
2-There is a positive relationship between the CCC and the ROE and positive relationship with the quick ratio and the standard deviation as well .
3-There is no relationship between the CCC and the liquidly ratio.

An Analysis of Indicators of Economic Security for Individual in Iraq

Economic Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 44, Pages 28-45

The aim of achieving economic security for individuals should be on the top of national priorities and the interests of any state in modern age, as it is closely related to the individual's life and to the management of state resources in the one hand, and its direct effect on determining the individual's income, on the other.
The problem of having a job, and then stable income for Iraqis, became complicated for the successive governments, nearly since 1980. This led to the spread of poverty and ignorance, as the governments are unable to provide job opportunities for Iraqi citizens due to political and economic reasons especially after 2003. In addition to that, the absence of strategic planning caused more disruption in the structure of the Iraqi economy

Analysis of causality relationship between public expenditure and inflation in Libyan economy (1990-2000)

Dr. Salam A. Alshami

Economic Sciences, Volume 9, Issue 36, Pages 92-121

Despite the differences between economic regimes, there is a wide acceptance about the effectual role of inflation in the economic path, and that effect has more importance in the development countries including Libya.
The research adopted a Road map explaining the relationship between public expenditure and inflation in Libyan economy during (1990-2009).
For the settlement of this Road map, the researcher tried many descriptive and quantitative approaches to clarify this relationship.
The final finding which has been reflected via the causality measurement: The main effect arouse from the public government toward inflation pressures in Libya (1990-2009).

Institutional Problems in Administration of Higher Education in Iraq

Jawad Kadeem lafta

Economic Sciences, Volume 7, Issue 26, Pages 51-87

In this research, the institutional aspect of higher education system's administration has been tackled and the current administrative nature of this system has been approached. The components of the institutional system for higher education have been identified, the relevant theoretical and methodological concepts have been closely examined and the necessary measures to upgrade this organization according to world best practices have been set out. The research deals with the economic and institutional aspects of higher education globalization phenomenon, the nature of the strategic management of this system and the general distinguishing features of the Iraqi higher education organization. The research reaches a key finding, which is a vindication of its hypotheses: there is a clear defect in the quality of the components of higher education institutional system, its action mechanisms and the organizational and legal frameworks directing its activities. Thus, these components should be restructured using new methodological approaches, which are consistent with the unique nature of higher education, society needs and the diverse challenges of our modern age.

The reality of tourism in Iraq

Assist .Prof.Dr. Nadwa Hilal Jawda

Economic Sciences, Volume 11, Issue 41, Pages 66-89

The Tourism sector has developed ,Where tourism is no longer the word belonging to individuals passengers in order to enjoy views around the word ,but exceeded to include the identification of word cultures and global integration as well as the establishment of trade between nations ,Iraq is one of the countries that have all the elements of tourism ,including religious ,archaeological and aesthetic where Iraq is the land of the holy sites ,especially in the provinces of( Najaf, Karbala ,Baghdad and Samarra ).The aesthetic features in Iraq is concentrated in northern Iraq (Erbil , Sulaimaniyah , Dohuk ).The archeological sites are in (Minewa ,Kirkuk , Diyala , Tikrit ,Babylon) and confirmed .And do not forget the south of Iraq ,especially the marshlands and the so-called Venice of the East. Unfortunately ,these depleted resources are not exploited for the development of this sector ,similar to What happens in most countries of the Word , Where this scoter has suffered from neglecting on the length of the previous decades

Motives and Guaranties of investor in the shadow of Iraqi Investment Law and som Arabian Investment laws

Hashem Ramadan Algazaary

Economic Sciences, Volume 6, Issue 23, Pages 47-81

The current tendency of Iraq calls for bringing the investments to build the economy of the country whose infrastructure have been destroyed. As a result, the investment law no.13 , 2006 has been legislated . The main principles of this law were based on the scientific study of the current status of the country and the experience of the developing countries in this concern.
It is well known that bringing investments to the developing countries are not that easy. This is due to the fact that the investor, especially the foreign one, relays, in making his decision on investment in a certain a country, on the level of balance between the expected benefit and the risks. This balance is based on the guaranties and motives, the security and political and economical stability, the presence of legislations that provide such guaranty for the investor. All these issues are called the Investment Atmosphere. Hence , a light has been shed on the motives and guaranties provided by the Iraqi investment law no.13 , 2006, some other Arabian Investment Laws and some international treaties.

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